How to find out a persons last name
A surname , family name , or last name is the portion in some cultures of a personal name that indicates a person's family or tribe or community, depending on the culture. In the English-speaking world , a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families even three or more are used often due to a family claim to nobility. Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How To Find People like the CIA or Police ★★★★★ Learn to Track people
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How to Find Anybody's Full Name/Phone Number/Address 100% Free 2019Content:
Many English Last Names Began As Nicknames — Here Are Their Original Meanings
A surname , family name , or last name is the portion in some cultures of a personal name that indicates a person's family or tribe or community, depending on the culture.
In the English-speaking world , a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families even three or more are used often due to a family claim to nobility.
Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world.
In Europe, the concept of surnames became popular in the Roman Empire and expanded throughout the Mediterranean and Western Europe as a result. During the Middle Ages this practice died out as Germanic, Persian, and other influences took hold. During the late Middle Ages surnames gradually re-emerged, first in the form of bynames typically indicating individual's occupation or area of residence , which gradually evolved into modern surnames.
In China surnames have been the norm since at least the 2nd century BC. A family name is typically a part of a person's personal name which, according to law or custom, is passed or given to children from one or both of their parents' family names.
The use of family names is common in most cultures around the world, with each culture having its own rules as to how these names are formed, passed and used.
However, the style of having both a family name surname and a given name forename is far from universal. In many cultures, it is common for people to have one name or mononym , with some cultures not using family names. In most Slavic countries , as well as other countries including Greece , Lithuania and Latvia , for example, there are different family name forms for male and female members of the family. Issues of family name arise especially on the passing of a name to a new-born child, on the adoption of a common family name on marriage, on renouncing of a family name and on changing of a family name.
Surname laws vary around the world. Traditionally in many European countries for the past few hundred years, it was the custom or law that a woman would on marriage use the surname of her husband and that children of a man would have the father's surname. If a child's paternity was not known, or if the putative father denied paternity, the new-born child would have the surname of the mother. That is still the custom or law in many countries. The surname for children of married parents is usually inherited from the father.
In this article, family name and surname both mean the patrilineal surname, handed down from or inherited from the father's, unless explicitly stated otherwise. Thus, the term "maternal surname" means the patrilineal surname which one's mother inherited from either or both of her parents. For a discussion of matrilineal 'mother-line' surnames, passing from mothers to daughters, see matrilineal surname. It is common for women in the entertainment industry like celebrities to keep their maiden name after they get married, especially if they achieved their fame before marriage.
The same can be said for women who achieved their fame during a previous marriage; For example: Kris Jenner born Kris Houghton was married to her second spouse Bruce Jenner now Caitlyn when she rose to prominence in the reality show Keeping Up with the Kardashians and singer Britney Spears has been married twice after she rose to prominence, but she still used her maiden name while married.
In English-speaking cultures , family names are often used by children when referring to adults but are also used to refer to someone in authority, the elderly, or in a formal setting, and are often used with a title or honorific such as Mr. Generally the given name is the one used by friends, family, and other intimates to address an individual.
It may also be used by someone who is in some way senior to the person being addressed. This practice also differs between cultures; see T—V distinction. The study of proper names in family names, personal names, or places is called onomastics. A one-name study is a collection of vital and other biographical data about all persons worldwide sharing a particular surname. In many cultures particularly in European and European-influenced cultures in the Americas, Oceania, etc.
In other cultures the surname is placed first, followed by the given name or names. Reversing the order of names for the same reason is also customary for the Baltic Fennic peoples and the Hungarians , but other Uralic peoples traditionally did not have surnames, perhaps because of the clan structure of their societies.
The Samis saw no change or a transformation of their name. Recently, integration into the EU and increased communications with foreigners prompted many Samis to reverse the order of their full name to given name followed by surname, to avoid their given name being mistaken for and used as a surname. Indian surnames may often denote caste , profession, and village and are invariably mentioned along with the personal names. However, hereditary last names are not universal.
In Indian passports the surname is shown first. In telephone directories the surname is used for collation. In North Indian states the surname is placed after given names where it exists. In parts of south India, surname is placed before personal name and in most cases it is only shown as an initial for example 'S.
In English and other languages like Spanish—although the usual order of names is "first middle last"—for the purpose of cataloging in libraries and in citing the names of authors in scholarly papers, the order is changed to "last, first middle," with the last and first names separated by a comma, and items are alphabetized by the last name. While the use of given names to identify individuals is attested in the oldest historical records, the advent of surnames is a relatively recent [ when?
Other names can be linked to a place, for example Hill or Green , which relates to a village green. Surnames which are 'patronymic' are those which originally enshrined the father's name — such as Jackson , or Jenkinson.
There are also names where the origin describes the original bearer such as Brown, Short , or Thin — though Short may in fact be an ironic 'nickname' surname for a tall person.
By , most English and some Scottish people used surnames, but many Scottish and Welsh people did not adopt surnames until the 17th century, or later. Henry VIII ruled — ordered that marital births be recorded under the surname of the father. See Maiden and married names.
The first known instance in the United States of a woman insisting on the use of her birth name was that of Lucy Stone in ; and there has been a general increase in the rate of women using their birth name. This has gone through periods of flux, however, and the s saw a decline in the percentage of name retention among women. Many cultures have used and continue to use additional descriptive terms in identifying individuals. These terms may indicate personal attributes, location of origin, occupation, parentage, patronage, adoption, or clan affiliation.
These descriptors often developed into fixed clan identifications that in turn became family names as we know them today. Originally, Chinese surnames were derived matrilineally,  although by the time of the Shang dynasty to BCE they had become patrilineal. They can be referred to either as their full birth names or as their husband's surname plus the word for wife. In the past, women's given names were often not publicly known and women were referred in official documents by their family name plus the character "Shi" and when married by their husband's surname, their birth surname, and the character "Shi".
In Japan , family names were uncommon except among the aristocracy until the 19th century. In Ancient Greece, during some periods, formal identification commonly included place of origin. In none of these cases, though, were these names considered essential parts of the person's name, nor were they explicitly inherited in the manner that is common in many cultures today.
In the Roman Empire, the bestowal and use of clan and family names waxed and waned with changes in the various subcultures of the realm. See Roman naming conventions. The nomen, which was the gens name, was inherited much like last names are, but their purposes were quite different [ how?
In later [ when? The nomen were to identify group kinship. The praenomen was the "forename" and was originally used like a first name today. In later times [ when? Around this time, [ when? It became usual that one of these cognomen was inherited, but as the praenomen and nomen became more rigidly used and less useful for identifying individuals, additional personal cognomen were more often used, to the point that the first the praenomen and then the nomen fell out of use entirely.
In Western Europe, where Germanic culture dominated the aristocracy, family names were almost non-existent. They would not significantly reappear again in Eastern Roman society until the 10th century, apparently influenced by the familial affiliations of the Armenian military aristocracy.
In Ireland, the use of surnames has a very old history. Ireland was the first country in Europe to use fixed surnames [ citation needed ]. In England, the introduction of family names is generally attributed to the preparation of the Domesday Book in , [ citation needed ] following the Norman conquest.
Evidence indicates that surnames were first adopted among the feudal nobility and gentry, and slowly spread to other parts of society. Some of the early Norman nobility who arrived in England during the Norman conquest differentiated themselves by affixing 'de' of before the name of their village in France. This is what is known as a territorial surname, a consequence of feudal landownership. In medieval times in France, such a name indicated lordship, or ownership, of the village.
Some early Norman nobles in England chose [ citation needed ] to drop the French derivations and call themselves instead after their new English holdings. Surnames were uncommon prior to the 12th century, and still somewhat rare into the 13th; most European surnames were originally occupational or locational, and served to distinguish one person from another if they happened to live near one another e.
This still happens, in some communities where a surname is particularly common. In the Middle Ages, when a man from a lower-status family married an only daughter from a higher-status family, he would often adopt the wife's family name. It is rare but not unknown for an English-speaking man to take his wife's family name, whether for personal reasons or as a matter of tradition such as among matrilineal Canadian aboriginal groups, such as the Haida and Gitxsan ; it is exceedingly rare but does occur in the United States, where a married couple may choose an entirely new last name by going through a legal change of name.
As an alternative, both spouses may adopt a double-barrelled name. A spouse may also opt to use their birth name as a middle name. Some couples keep their own last names but give their children hyphenated or combined surnames. In medieval Spain , a patronymic system was used. Over time, many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world. Other sources of surnames are personal appearance or habit, e. Delgado "thin" and Moreno "dark" ; occupations, e.
Molinero "miller" , Zapatero "shoe-maker" and Guerrero "warrior" ; and geographic location or ethnicity, e. During the modern era, many cultures around the world adopted family names, particularly for administrative reasons, especially during the age of European expansion and particularly since Notable examples include the Netherlands — , Japan s , Thailand , and Turkey Nonetheless, their use is not universal: Icelanders, Burmese, Javanese, and many people groups in East Africa do not use family names.
Family names sometimes change or are replaced by non-family-name surnames under political pressure to avoid persecution. The United States followed the naming customs and practices of English common law and traditions until recent [ when?
Beginning in the latter half of the 20th century, traditional naming practices, writes one commentator, were recognized as "com[ing] into conflict with current sensitivities about children's and women's rights".
Stop acting like you don’t know your Tinder date’s last name
It's operating off of the principle that Tinder, Bumble, OK Cupid, and other dating apps only offer a person's first name, and it's only through getting to know a person that the question of a last name becomes a sign post to the future. But this isn't exactly how things work. It's actually a lot more interesting because most everyone already knows their date's last name, they just have to wait for the right time to acknowledge it. Use this guide to figure it out. Some online daters definitely prefer to go into their meet-ups with as little information as possible, but many want to do a little googling in advance.
She quickly interrupted me and showed me her shortcut to get the person's last name. And if you click that Google entry, you will probably get to the person's LinkedIn public profile. Pretty cool. The more generic or nondescript the person's headline is, the more likely that multiple people will show up. For example, "Electrical Engineer at GE Medical" will yield several people, and it may take you a few pages on Google to find the right person.
When you're trying to find someone online, Google's not the only game in town. In the last two years, a handful of new people search engines have come onto the scene that offer better ways to pinpoint people info by name, handle, location, or place of employment. While there's still no killer, one-stop people search, there are more ways than ever to track down a long-lost friend, stalk an ex, or screen a potential date or employee. The next time you wonder, "What ever happened to so-and-so? Note: Stalking is serious business. When we say 'stalk,' we're exaggerating, not recommending. Look up anyone's home address es and phone numbers at ZabaSearch , a creepily-comprehensive people search engine that will freak you out when you search on your own name but save your ass when you desperately need a former coworker's phone number.
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