Differences between male and female victims of domestic violence
About two in five of all victims of domestic violence are men, contradicting the widespread impression that it is almost always women who are left battered and bruised, a new report claims. Men assaulted by their partners are often ignored by police, see their attacker go free and have far fewer refuges to flee to than women, says a study by the men's rights campaign group Parity. The charity's analysis of statistics on domestic violence shows the number of men attacked by wives or girlfriends is much higher than thought. In men made up Similar or slightly larger numbers of men were subjected to severe force in an incident with their partner, according to the same documents.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Men, own your role in domestic violence - Christan Rainey - TEDxCharleston
More than 40% of domestic violence victims are male, report reveals
The aim of this work was to investigate stalking experiences in a sample of Health Care Professionals, or HCPs, who experienced domestic violence in their previous relationships with an intimate romantic or non-romantic who had become their stalkers.
A comparison between males and females was made to highlight the differences among the genders. The findings showed that, for the most part, the victims experienced stalking by a stalker that was not of the same gender.
Moreover, the nature of the relationship was romantic, for the most part, for both female and male subjects, suggesting that the principal motivation of stalking is the disruption of an intimate relationship. Regarding domestic violence, females described the phenomenon from a different perspective, indicating verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, while males indicated only verbal abuse.
Females tended to amplify, more than the males, depression, and state and trait anxiety. Even if all symptoms were expressed in both females and males, the males exhibited a lack of confidence in their bodies, and the emotional literacy made the expression of distress more difficult.
At the same time, the expression of anxiety presented in the women permitted them to become progressively less victimized over time; depression and anxiety allow the recognition of these symptoms as signs of distress and to intervene to reduce them. Stalking has been defined by Westrup as a set of repetitive behaviors directed toward a target that perceives those behaviors as unwelcome and intrusive. As a consequence, victims of stalking experience fear for their safety Sheridan et al.
Since the s, national surveys have been made in several countries see for example Tjaden and Thoennes, using different criteria both to define the phenomenon e. This limitation did not allow the stalking campaign to be defined in a unique way, influencing and being influenced — De Fazio, the boundaries of the phenomenon.
Despite these limitations, Spitzberg and Cupach , identified the prevalence rate of victimization among females and males in the general population. Thus, the risk of victimization among females is higher, particularly in young individuals 18—29 years and may extend to when the stalker tries to establish or reestablish a relationship.
Regarding this relationship, Sheridan et al. From their work, it appears that prior domestic violence increases the chances of becoming a victim of stalking. Moreover, as underlined by Senkans et al. In their investigation, in which victims of stalking were involved, Ferreira and Matos found that the majority of participants reported they had experienced partner abuse before the beginning of the stalking campaign caused by the end of the relationship.
Among these, the findings revealed that stalking victims suffer from a very diverse spectrum of behaviors, more frequently unwanted communication and contact, while harassment and intimidation are the least frequent.
Mullen et al. To confirm this, findings from the investigation by Sheridan and Lyndon , which involved 1, self-defined stalking victims, showed that victims who had a prior relationship with their stalkers were more likely to experience a greater number of emotive, physical, and social consequences than other types of victim—stalker relationships. To cope with the phenomenon, victims use several strategies. Spitzberg and Cupach categorized these coping strategies see also Amar and Alexy, as the following:.
Cupach and Spitzberg highlighted that victims engage in multiple strategies to cope with stalking campaigns. Ferreira and Matos highlighted that the most used coping strategies by victims of stalking, previously victims of domestic violence, were to search for help from friends or family moving outward, following the categorization of the coping strategies suggested by Spitzberg and Cupach , to negotiate with and to confront the stalker moving toward , and to avoid the stalker moving away.
An analysis of the literature revealed that one of the samples most investigated was HCPs see McIvor et al. Findings from investigations involving psychiatrists, physicians, nurses, psychologists, and among others have shown that this population is at higher risk of victimization than the general population Ashmore et al. In their literature analysis, Spitzberg and Cupach argued that the average incidence was In this population, the risk of victimization has been linked to both to the nature of their work and to the expectation about the engagement in the relationship Galeazzi et al.
Their professional behavior, involving being devoted to caring for the patient, could be misunderstood as a desire to begin a relationship intimate romantic or non-romantic. The motion to change the nature of the relationship from the HCP could cause disillusioned beliefs, feelings of frustration, desires of revenge, and so on Galeazzi et al.
Thus, a stalking campaign begins with the aim of establishing a relationship. On the other hand, people partners, friends, and relatives have expectations about the quality of the care that HCPs provide, also outside the workplace.
These expectations are linked to the attention to the relationship and, as has emerged in previous research Acquadro Maran et al.
In this case, the stalking campaign could begin with the desire of revenge. A gap in the literature is related to the experience of domestic violence in this population and the experience of stalking victimization. The possibility that they could themselves be victims of domestic violence was not considered. However, previous investigations showed that HCPs are victims by acquaintances and ex-partners Ashmore et al. The aim of this work was to investigate stalking experiences in a sample of Italian female and male HCPs who experienced domestic violence and stalking victimization.
The Italian context has been characterized since by the introduction of the anti-stalking law Penal Code, article bis , Previous research on Italian HCP victims of stalking, showed that among nurses, 28 were victims of an ex-partner, while 44 were victims of acquaintances Acquadro Maran et al.
In an investigation among HCPs, it emerged that stalkers were ex-partners of 88 victims, while for 95 they were acquaintances Acquadro Maran et al. The general goal of our study was to evaluate the stalking experience in a sample of HCPs that experienced domestic violence in their previous relationship with an intimate romantic or non-romantic that became their stalkers.
A comparison between males and females was made to highlight the differences between the sexes. The variables investigated were those described by the literature see above : nature of the relationship, stalking behaviors, the frequency and the duration of the stalking campaign one item each , the consequences, and the coping strategies used. Given the lack of literature on this topic, we did not have specific hypotheses about the gender difference in the stalking experience of females and males who experienced domestic violence.
The data were gathered from a survey on stalking victimization involving more than HCP who worked in 6 Italian hospitals public sector , and questionnaires were filled out The HCPs self-declared victims of stalker were A selection was made among the cases of self-declared victimization.
The criteria of inclusion were the nature of the relationship [intimate romantic such as partner and ex-partner and intimate non-romantic relatives, close friends — see Spitzberg, ] and the presence of a form of domestic violence verbal abuse, physical harm, sexual abuse — Bennett Cattaneo et al.
Victims of other types of stalkers acquaintance, unknown and those who did not suffer from domestic violence were not included. Overall, most of them were nurses 59, Six 4. About a quarter were single 36, The remainder of the sample 4, 2.
The stalker was in most cases a male , In 13 8. All victims experienced verbal abuse before the beginning of the stalking campaign, 15 All respondents took part on a voluntary basis. Participants were asked to anonymously complete several sections of a self-administered questionnaire. The first section described the purpose of the questionnaire and contained the instructions for replying, as well as the anonymity and privacy statements.
Lorraine Sheridan Forensic Psychologist, University of Leicester , a questionnaire on depression, and two scales on anxiety were used to describe the experience of victimization. The Italian version of the stalking questionnaire covered issues such as demographic details of the participants and the stalkers and the duration and frequency of stalking. The coping strategies were subsequently categorized as suggested by Spitzberg and Spitzberg and Cupach as moving toward, moving away, moving against, moving inward, or moving outward e.
The BDI is a question survey designed to determine the presence of depression symptoms. Each scale includes 20 items. The total scores can range between 20 and 80, where 40 is the threshold value considered predictive of anxiety symptoms. All the questionnaires were self-administered.
A letter with the invitation to take part in the investigation on HCPs victims of stalking was sent out to six hospitals. In the letter, we explained the purpose of the research, the voluntary nature of participation, the anonymity and privacy statement in accordance with Italian Law and with the Declaration of Helsinki, the scales that would be used and the procedure for completing and collecting the questionnaires.
Hospital administrations and local guarantee committees evaluated, endorsed, and authorized the research, allowing researchers to use the data for scientific purposes. Each participant was given a printout of the questionnaire, the information letter, and the informed consent form in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The first page of the questionnaire contained the aim of the research, the instructions for completing and returning the questionnaires and the contact details of the researchers the authors of this paper for any doubts or problems.
The stalking phenomenon was described on the first page. All HCPs were asked to complete the first part of the questionnaire socio-personal data. For all, the request was to place the questionnaire in a sealed box situated in the locker room.
The scheduled date for collection was after a 3-week period after 1 week there was a reminder placed on the sealed box. The data were processed using SPSS version 24 to produce mainly descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlations were calculated to examine the relation between the number of physical and emotional symptoms reported by female and male victims of stalking and depression and anxiety symptoms, and between the number of methods of harassment and the coping strategies used by victims female, male.
Female HCPs who self-declared as victims of domestic violence and stalking were 96 Most of them were nurses 38, About one third were married 27, The stalker was in most cases a male 88, The stalker was an employee in most cases 83, The nature of the relationship with the victims was intimate romantic in 67 cases The domestic violence was described by the victims as verbal abuse all respondents , physical harm 15, The behaviors that characterized the stalking victimization are in Table 1.
TABLE 1. The stalking campaign left the victims with both physical and emotive consequences see Table 2. Regarding depression and anxiety, the results showed that, for the most part, for females the level of depression was minimal Table 3 , even if the females experienced symptoms more often than males.
Regarding trait anxiety, the findings showed that females were more prone than males to reach the cut-off for moderate anxiety STAI-Y2. The number of emotive consequence was significantly related to the increase in depression symptoms Table 4.
To cope with the stalking campaign, the victims adopted different strategies Table 5. All victims adopted at least one strategy of the moving away type. TABLE 2. TABLE 3. TABLE 4. TABLE 5. TABLE 6.
Are a third of domestic abuse victims men?
Resources for researchers, policy-makers, intervention providers, victim advocates, law enforcement, judges, attorneys, family court mediators, educators, and anyone interested in family violence. Domestic Violence Facts and Statistics at-a-Glance. PASK Researchers.
When men and women are violent in heterosexual relationships, they usually engage in different patterns of behavior, for different reasons, and with different consequences. The following chart summarizes the approximate percentage of men and women who perpetrate different sorts of IPV, estimated by Johnson from prior research. No parallel thing happens to men, Stark says, even to men with abusive partners. Perpetrators who are arrested for DV crimes or the violation of an order of protection are overwhelmingly male, and their victims overwhelmingly female.
Domestic violence against men
Domestic violence against men deals with domestic violence experienced by men in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. As with domestic violence against women , violence against men may constitute a crime , but laws vary between jurisdictions. Men who report domestic violence can face social stigma regarding their perceived lack of machismo and other denigrations of their masculinity. The relative prevalence of IPV against men to that of women is highly disputed between different studies, with some countries having no data at all. Some researchers believe the actual number of male victims may be greater than law enforcement statistics suggest due to the number of men who do not report their abuse. IPV against men is a controversial area of research, with terms such as gender symmetry , battered husband syndrome and bidirectional IPV provoking a great deal of debate. The lines of the debate tend to fall between two basic polemics. The first of these argues that scholars who focus on female-perpetrated IPV are part of an anti-feminist backlash, and are attempting to undermine the problem of male-perpetrated abuse by championing the cause of the man, over the much more serious cause of the abused woman.
Gender: How Men and Women Experience Domestic Violence Differently
Every case of domestic abuse should be taken seriously and each individual given access to the support they need. All victims should be able to access appropriate support. Whilst both men and women may experience incidents of inter-personal violence and abuse, women are considerably more likely to experience repeated and severe forms of abuse, including sexual violence. They are also more likely to have experienced sustained physical, psychological or emotional abuse, or violence which results in injury or death.
There are differences in the types of violence and abuse, differences in social messages that condone abuse, and there are differences in outcomes as a result of intimate partner abuse. Other outcomes are more severe for women such as being more likely to become homeless, to lose their financial footing and live in poverty. Women experience longer-term mental health problems such as chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, or physical disabilities as a consequence of partner abuse.
Domestic abuse is a gendered crime
Women who commit deadly violence are different in many ways from male perpetrators, both in terms of the most common victims, the way in which the murder is committed, the place where it is carried out and the perpetrator's background. This is shown by a new study that also investigated homicide trends over time in Sweden. Sweden is in the group of countries with the lowest number of murders per capita.
Of those aged who told the Crime Survey for England and Wales that they had experienced some form of domestic abuse since they were 16, a third were male and two thirds were female. ManKind Initiative, March Because of the way this is calculated there is some uncertainty around the exact numbers: there could be around , more or less than this. This figure includes all types of domestic abuse, including from family members or partners, and physical, sexual and non-physical abuse, as well as stalking. The Crime Survey has just started asking people aged 60 to 74 whether they have experienced domestic abuse although the survey is just for households so may miss those in care homes. The prevalence of domestic abuse is notoriously hard to measure , as it requires victims to report it to the police or surveys.
The aim of this work was to investigate stalking experiences in a sample of Health Care Professionals, or HCPs, who experienced domestic violence in their previous relationships with an intimate romantic or non-romantic who had become their stalkers. A comparison between males and females was made to highlight the differences among the genders. The findings showed that, for the most part, the victims experienced stalking by a stalker that was not of the same gender. Moreover, the nature of the relationship was romantic, for the most part, for both female and male subjects, suggesting that the principal motivation of stalking is the disruption of an intimate relationship. Regarding domestic violence, females described the phenomenon from a different perspective, indicating verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, while males indicated only verbal abuse. Females tended to amplify, more than the males, depression, and state and trait anxiety. Even if all symptoms were expressed in both females and males, the males exhibited a lack of confidence in their bodies, and the emotional literacy made the expression of distress more difficult. At the same time, the expression of anxiety presented in the women permitted them to become progressively less victimized over time; depression and anxiety allow the recognition of these symptoms as signs of distress and to intervene to reduce them.
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