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Difference between gf and gc

The Gf-Gc theory of cognitive abilities is a psychometric theory of intelligence based on intelligence and ability tests. The theory was first formulated in terms of fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities by Raymond Cattell in The theory posits its fundamental assumption, that intelligence or rather, human cognitive abilities is not a unitary construct but entails the lifelong coordination of at least two classes of abilities: fluid Gf , which refers to the ability of understanding relationships among the components of an abstract problem and using such relationships to solve the problem, and crystallized Gc , which refers to the knowledge accumulated through experiences. Two particular aspects of this hypothesis, which set it apart from previous ones, are its structural and its kinematic predictions.

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Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

How malleable is human nature? Can an individual really change in meaningful ways? Or, are there immutable limits on the possibilities of human growth set in place by the genes and by the early experiences of childhood? These are questions which touch our deepest political and personal concerns; and they have long been a matter of fierce debate in the behavioral sciences. Constancy and Change in Human Development takes a thorough inventory of the growing body of research which now bears upon these questions.

Editors Brim and Kagan have assembled an outstanding group of specialists in human growth and commissioned them to assess questions of change and continuity in physical, mental, and emotional development throughout the life span.

Beginning with three general chapters which place the ideas of continuity and discontinuity in historical and philosophical perspective, the book moves across a broad spectrum of developmental issues, ranging from the basic adaptability of the human central nervous system to the effects of social institutions which seek to promote individual change.

There are chapters on physical growth, health, cognitive development, personality, social attitudes and beliefs, occupational careers, psychosis, and criminal behavior. Throughout these chapters, the recurring question is whether development can be seen as a continuous process in which early stages reliably predict subsequent events, or whether instead there are sharp discontinuities which render individual development essentially unpredictable.

The variety and richness of the answers to this question provide a summary of human development which is unparalleled in any other single volume. Constancy and Change in Human Development. Orville Gilbert Brim Jr. Perspectives on Continuity. The Continuous and the Discrete. Continuities and Change. The Dynamics of Growth Organization. ISBN The Endocrine System.

Physical Health. The Course of Schizophrenic Psychosis. Cognitive Development in Childhood. Cognitive Development in Adulthood. Longitudinal Study of Personality Development. Values Attitudes and Beliefs.

Criminal Behavior over the Life Span. A View of the Issues.

The Difference Between Fluid Intelligence and Crystallized Intelligence

By contrast, the other is invested in particular areas of crystallized skills which can be upset individually without affecting the others. Raymond Cattell. Fluid intelligence is the ability to tackle new problems by recognizing patterns and using logic and reasoning to find a solution independent of any experience or knowledge.

The Cattell—Horn—Carroll theory commonly abbreviated to CHC , is a psychological theory on the structure of human cognitive abilities. Based on the work of three psychologists, Raymond B.

According to the theory published in by the psychologist Raymond Cattell , [1] [2] [3] general intelligence g is subdivided into fluid intelligence g f and crystallized intelligence g c. Fluid intelligence is the ability to solve novel reasoning problems and is correlated with a number of important skills such as comprehension, problem solving, and learning. Fluid intelligence depends on working memory capacity, [6] which is localized in the prefrontal cortex. Fluid and crystallized intelligence are constructs originally identified as elements of a theory developed by Raymond Cattell. Some researchers have linked the theory of fluid and crystallized abilities to Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

Fluid and crystallized intelligence

Intelligence was once thought of as a single concept, until psychologist Raymond Cattell introduced the notions of fluid and crystallized intelligence in his research for the Journal of Psychology. The two types of intelligences are governed by separate entities within the brain and serve different functions. Abbreviated as Gf, fluid intelligence is one of the discrete factors of general intelligence, according to psychologist Charles Spearman. It is defined as the innate and inherent learning capacity of all individuals. It also governs memory capacity, attention and information analysis. Fluid intelligence is overseen by the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and other regions that affect short-term memory and attention. Activities that utilize fluid intelligence include learning , problem solving and pattern recognition. Similar to crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence peaks during childhood and adolescence. However, it peaks during the late 20s and starts to decline.

Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory

The G f - G c model of intelligence is a broad-based and general model of cognitive ability developed from the seminal work of Raymond Cattell in The original Horn—Cattell theory divides the overall construct of cognitive ability into two general classes of abilities based on inherent cognitive capacity and interaction with experience. Fluid intelligence G f is a problem-solving and information processing ability, while crystallized intelligence G c is an accumulation of knowledge and skills throughout life. Fluid intelligence leads to the acquisition of crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence represents flexible thinking and the ability to reason abstractly.

How malleable is human nature?

The Measurement of Intelligence. This book deals with one aspect of the modern, proof, and the deductions to which they give rise, and scientific study of intelligence, namely its measurement. Thus IQ testing would appear to many psychologists have little idea of what the word many people to give rise to desirable and "good" conse means, and what are the requirements which must be quences when it enables us to pick out bright "dis fulfilled in order to enable "measurement" to take advantaged" children for higher educational and place. Krantz, Luce, Suppes and Tversky have university training who would otherwise not have been tried to provide us with an introduction to the "Founda educated up to the level of their ability.

Fluid vs. Crystallized Intelligence

Alan S. Kaufman, James C. Kaufman, Xin Liu, Cheryl K.

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When you think about intelligence , what sort of things comes to mind? Intelligence is more than simply the accumulation of facts. It also encompasses the ability to learn new things as well. So when you think of intelligence, you might think of having a lot of knowledge about different subjects. But you also might consider quick thinking and the ability to reason. Such factors represent what psychologists refer to as fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.


The G factor, comprised of a mixture of Gf and Gc, is at plateau in early adulthood, but declines in the later years of this period. The age differences in samples of.








Comments: 1
  1. Vudogor

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